By:Â Dana M. Mele Introduction:Â The concept of a self-driving car is no longer the stuff of science fiction. From as early as the 1960s, engineers have worked on designs for autonomous vehicles. However, in 2004, two challenges were extended that catapulted the race into hyper-drive. The Department of Defense (â€œDoDâ€) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (â€œDARPAâ€) issued the first DARPA Challenge, asking engineers to compete to create an autonomous vehicle that would contribute to research and development of autonomous vehicles for military purposes. In the same year, the National Federation for the Blind (â€œNFBâ€) announced a challenge to create another type of vehicle using cutting edge intelligent technologyâ€”a car designed for blind drivers.
By: Ryan M. Murphy Introduction: Â Are you violating United States export law when you click â€œsaveâ€ on that document? Exactly where does that file go? For some, it may travel to a server within their companyâ€™s building, but for an increasing population, that file goes â€œinto the cloudsâ€ and out of the country. If you use a service provider to host e-mail or store data, itâ€™s important to understand the type of data you are storing and where that information is located. Many cloud providers utilize a vast array of servers, referred to commonly as â€œcloudsâ€, located all over the world. Â These servers are connected and work together to provide a seamless hosting environment for users. Â A significant export control issue arises when the data stored on a cloud falls within the type regulated by the Export Administration Regulations (â€œEARâ€), and itâ€™s sent to a server in another country. If so, you may have just unknowingly exported your data and become subject to government regulation.
Reviewed by: Brianne Yantz Book by: Sheila Jasanoff, et al. Abtract:Â Reframing Rights: Bioconstitutionalism in the Genetic Age assesses the evolving relationship between science and the law. Specifically, the authors focus on how advances in biological sciences and biotechnology in the last century have promulgated changes regarding the legal conception of life and individual rights. Told through a series of case studies, Reframing Rights argues these changes in law and science should be considered "bioconstitutional." Topics such as sterilization, DNA testing, and xenotransplantation are among those examined and argued by the authors as demonstrative of constitutionally significant changes that have developed between individuals, science, and the state in recent decades. With such considerable changes, the authors contend, the law must constantly evolve to maintain the balance between individual rights and state authority.
By: Christopher Tommarello This article examines the discrepancies between the ADA and emergency communication systems in the United States, specifically New York City, and highlights the need for the law to be amended to require that as new technology is created for emergency communications, adaptations be made to continue accessibility for those with disabilities. The rise and use of emergency call boxes in New York City, coupled with the Civic Association case, demonstrates that without a major change to the ADA it is possible that certain individuals with disabilities will be unable to communicate with emergency services in the future. Changes must be made to afford all individuals the ability to access emergency communication devices. No individual should be concerned about whether he or she will be able to access emergency services during an emergency simply because of a disability. Instead, all individuals should feel secure knowing that in the time of need they are able to access those who can provide help and ultimately relieve a stressful situation.
Reviewed by: Carly Wolfrom Book by: Edella C. Schlager, Kristen H. Engel, and Sally Rider, eds. Abstract: Because of climate changeâ€™s inherently global nature, most proposed solutions have been tailored to a global scale. Navigating Climate Change Policy: The Opportunities of Federalism challenges the idea that because climate change is a global issue, only actions on a worldwide scale can lead to a resolution. It considers the perspective that since climate change itself has both global and local causes and implications, the most effective policies for adapting to and mitigating climate change must involve governments and communities at many different levels. The editors and authors feel federalism is well-suited to address the challenges of climate change because it permits distinctive policy responses at a variety of scales. This book uses a variety of viewpoints and blends legal and policy analyses to provide thought-provoking coverage of how governments in a federal system can cooperate, coordinate, and accommodate one another to address climate change.
Reviewed by: Pete Frick Book by: Donald E. Shelton Abstract:Forensic Science in Court: Challenges in the Twenty-First Century is a book that explores the legal implications of forensic science. Starting with the history of scientific evidence in court, the book progresses into an examination of how courts treat current types of forensic evidence, specifically how modern juries receive and weigh forensic evidence, and how judges determine what evidence can be allowed. Judge Shelton makes good use of case studies in the book to illustrate the academic points in a real-world setting.
By: Okorie Okorocha and Matthew Standmark Abtract: The Alcohol breath test (ABT), commonly known by its commercial name as the â€œBreathalyzer,â€ is a device made popular in the United States and used by law enforcement agencies throughout the world to assess and determine the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of individuals suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). , , With increased popularity of the automobile in the late 19th century, traffic accidents caused by individuals driving while intoxicated became a serious problem. While legislation was created making it illegal to operate a vehicle under the influence, no quantitative method existed which could assess the intoxication level of an individual. Instead, subjective field tests were used to assess drunkenness relying on identifying certain behaviors in the suspected individual. Blood tests eventually became available to determine BAC, but since drawing blood roadside from a suspected individual is not a viable option for law enforcement officials, another method was needed which could determine intoxication or BAC indirectly and in a non-invasive manner.
By: Stephanie Sgambati Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the portions of our genetic makeup where human differ from each other. Mapping an individualâ€™s profile creates a DNA fingerprint entirely unique to that individual. The primary purpose for the creation of SNP profiles has been validation of medical techniques used in reproductive medicine that require researchers to be able to definitively determine which embryo makes which baby- thus matching DNA fingerprints from infants to those from embryos. In spite of this seemingly narrow use, the potential value of the information contained in the SNP profile is enormous.
By: Mary Bertlesman This note addresses the proposed WIPO International Instrument on the Limitations and Exception for Persons with Print Disabilities. I conclude that the current growth in technology - making previously inaccessible works accessible â€“ calls for a change to current domestic copyright law and that ratification of the proposed treaty should be this change.
By: Jen Manso Summary:Â This case addresses privacy rights as they relate to cell-site location data in light of the United States v. Jones decision. I argue that Jones provides little guidance and therefore cannot apply to cell-site location data for the following reasons. First, the Court did not reach the issue of cell-site location data. Second, the majority of the Court based its reasoning in property rights. Third, the majority narrowed its decision to the actual physical trespass of a GPS device placed on a vehicle and not the tracking information. Remaining loyal to Katz, a constitutional right to privacy in the information gathered via cell-site location data does not exist because the information is stored and openly available to third parties.